In another ceasefire was declared along the Line of Control which resulted in five-stage talks between the Indian and Pakistani governments, commencing in They resolved to try to end the dispute, but the death of Mr Shastri and the rise of Gen Yahya Khan in Pakistan resulted in stalemate.
These forces, who function outside of the normal command structure of the Indian army and other security forces, nevertheless are considered state agents under international law.
According to Indian scholar A. On May 11 and 13,India tested five nuclear devices, and three weeks later, Pakistan responded in kind.
Whether it be due to religion or region, Kashmir is not a unified voice on the matter of its future. Justice Mehr Chand Mahajanthe Maharaja's nominee for his next prime minister, visited Nehru and Patel in Delhi on 19 September, requesting essential supplies which had been blockaded by Pakistan since the beginning of September.
The Indian security forces also engage in brutal forms of torture which likewise have the sanction of senior officials.
After its military pact with the United States in the s, it intensively studied guerrilla warfare through engagement with the US military. During its mission, Human Rights Watch documented thirteen cases of "disappearances": When India began patrolling the Kargil heights that summer, it found to its horror that many key posts vacated in the winter were occupied by infiltrators.
In May, Ajmal Kasab is found guilty of murder, conspiracy and of waging war against India in the Mumbai attacks case.
The National Conference rejected this resolution and Nehru supported this by telling Dr Graham that he would receive no help in implementing the Resolution. The insurgents took advantage of the severe winter conditions and occupied vacant mountain peaks of the Kargil range.
However, skirmishing continued, and in August India shot down a Pakistani reconnaissance plane, killing Whether it be due to religion or region, Kashmir is not a unified voice on the matter of its future.
This decision was viewed as fraudulent, unfair, and completely unrecognized by the Pakistani government. When the Indian Prime Minister, Atal Behari Vajpayee, set out to Lahore by bus on February 20,inaugurating the four times a week Delhi-Lahore-Delhi bus servicethe world felt that such a genuine effort at friendly neighbourhood relations would lower the tension along the Line of Control in Kashmir.
The Indian government continues to take a stern line with Pakistan, however, with its coalition government saying that it is up to Pakistan to take the first step towards the resumption of substantive talks by cracking down on militant groups on its soil.
This move was, as suggested and accepted by India, supposed to be temporary until a plebiscite could be conducted which would enable the Kashmiri people to choose who would rule them, though this has never materialised.
India declared war on December 3, after Pakistani Air Force planes struck Indian airfields in the Western sector. In the first part, Pakistan was to withdraw its forces as well as other Pakistani nationals from the state.
This report is based on a mission to Indian-controlled Kashmir in October However, it has multiple branches, each holding differing views on how Kashmir should proceed independently, which is indicative of the vast array of opinions that exist across the territory.
Yet this, by all accounts of soldiers and top Indian army officers involved, was a war in which India lost men engaged in hand-to-hand combat with Pakistani soldiers in the heights of Kargil - a war that could be compared with the one ofwhich was limited to Kashmir, with the other border regions remaining peaceful.
The British Paramountcy over the Indian princely states ended. A fourth militant group, the Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front, a secular and nationalist group, has sought full independence for Kashmir from both India and Pakistan, and increasingly found its support reduced over the past few decades.
If those violations had been seriously addressed at any time during the last ten years, the risk of a military confrontation between India and Pakistan might have been reduced. HRW Home Background Kashmir has been at the heart of a territorial dispute between India and Pakistan since the two nations gained their independence in However, many reports of rape, particularly by federal or local police forces, are never investigated.
They established a reign of terror and drove out almost all the Hindus from the valley before the Indian army moved in to flush them out. The conflict is set against the backdrop of the Himalayan mountains and valleys and involves a patchwork of languages, religions and ethnicities: Pakistan agreed but Nehru said he would not allow a third person to decide the fate of four million people.
As they have gained greater control of the cities, Indian forces and the countermilitants have fostered a climate of repression. However, the talks once again took a back seat after the Mumbai attacks, which Pakistan admitted were launched and partly planned from Pakistan.
Alongside those who align more closely to either the Pakistani or Indian government views, there are also those who favour independence for Kashmir. The status quo was largely maintained until when pro-independence and pro-Pakistan guerrillas struck in the Indian Kashmir valley.
The largest engagement of the war takes place in the Sialkot sector, where between and tanks square off in an inconclusive battle.
Over 50% of the population is in the Valley. A treaty renamed the mile border the Line of Control. Only two roads lead in and out of Srinagar, the capital of J&K. They fought two wars over it and are now nuclear armed - why India and Pakistan dispute Kashmir.
while in India fought a brief but bitter conflict with. Sep 25, · A third conflict between India and Pakistan erupted in after Pakistani-backed forces infiltrated Indian-controlled Kashmir in the Kargil. The Himalayan region of Kashmir has been a flashpoint between India and Pakistan for over six decades.
Since India's partition and the creation of Pakistan inthe nuclear-armed neighbours. Summary: India-Pakistan Conflict over Kashmir. At the end of British occupation intwo countries stood where there once was one. Pakistan divided with the intention of being the nation for the Muslims of India.
An Overview And Analysis Of The Kashmir Dispute Politics Essay. Print Reference this This essay will analyse the ongoing dispute over Kashmir, which continues to stoke hostilities, and several skirmishes, in the region.
the father of Kashmiri nationalism, believed that one of the best resolutions to reconcile the Kashmir conflict was.An overview of the conflict over kashmir