An analysis of the characteristics of ebola virus

Human resources for health (HRH) tools and guidelines

Most people spread the virus through blood, feces and vomit. In the present study, we used the Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points framework to generate recommendations for mitigating the risks posed by virus-contaminated waste within health-care facilities and communities experiencing outbreaks of Ebola virus disease.

In our early meetings we concentrated on defining the most important waste products — in terms of risk of transmission — and then creating initial flow diagrams representing the pathways that could be used for the collection and disposal of each of these waste products.

Index cases of EVD have often been close to recently-deforested lands. The team members were drawn from 19 different institutional departments spread across multiple countries within Africa, Europe and North America.

However, it is worth noting that there is evidence highlighting contact with raw sewage as a transmission route for many other pathogens. In the three countries most affected by the recent outbreak — i.

In our analysis, taking into account the likely viral load within the contaminated waste and the likely opportunity for transmission of the virus via a particular activity, we only associated activities involving blood-soiled waste with relatively high risks of Ebola virus transmission.

Bulletin of the World Health Organization ; Laboratory testing Possible non-specific laboratory indicators of EVD include a low platelet count ; an initially decreased white blood cell count followed by an increased white blood cell count ; elevated levels of the liver enzymes alanine aminotransferase ALT and aspartate aminotransferase AST ; and abnormalities in blood clotting often consistent with disseminated intravascular coagulation DIC such as a prolonged prothrombin timepartial thromboplastin timeand bleeding time.

Acknowledgements We thank everyone who commented on the flow diagram and hazard analysis of this manuscript. Our analysis took account of existing evidence presented in the published literature and guidance published by international organizations.

We believe that waste contaminated with other bodily fluids poses a substantially lower transmission risk, which decreases further with time after contamination.

In the meantime, our recommendations should be followed to ensure that the potential for Ebola virus transmission via waste materials is minimized. At the two-day meeting, experts from the fields of health interventions, sanitation and wastewater hygiene gave their views on the flow diagrams.

The cleaning, collection, disposal, storage and transportation of waste contaminated with blood probably present the greatest waste-related transmission risks, particularly when the blood has come from a person in the advanced stages of the disease.

However, the high rates of death in these species resulting from EBOV infection make it unlikely that these species represent a natural reservoir for the virus. Team The international and multidisciplinary nature of the problems posed by Ebola virus meant that we — i.

Process In the analysis, a systematic approach that allows for the synthesis of expert opinion is combined with the available evidence.

Our analysis began when team members from the University of East Anglia Norwich, England held a series of small meetings. Isolating the virus by cell culturedetecting the viral RNA by polymerase chain reaction PCR [18] and detecting proteins by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ELISA are methods best used in the early stages of the disease and also for detecting the virus in human remains.

However, it is important to keep in mind that our analysis was mainly based on the — Ebola virus disease outbreak.

Ebola virus disease

AJST is an International Multidisciplinary Research Journal devoted to publishing innovative thoughts and research paper on variety of topics related to: This journal aims to cover the scientific research in a broader sense and not just publishing a niche area of research facilitating researchers from various verticals to publish their papers.

In our early meetings we concentrated on defining the most important waste products — in terms of risk of transmission — and then creating initial flow diagrams representing the pathways that could be used for the collection and disposal of each of these waste products.

This outbreak was unusual because it expanded into densely populated urban centres and there was sustained transmission of the virus within such environments.

We believe that, if managed poorly, each of these practices presents an unacceptable level of risk of the transmission of Ebola virus. At the two-day meeting, experts from the fields of health interventions, sanitation and wastewater hygiene gave their views on the flow diagrams.

Previous studies have shown that direct contact with a symptomatic person with Ebola virus disease is typically associated with relatively low risk of transmission during the early stages of the disease — whereas the risk of indirect transmission increases as the disease progresses.

All of the critical control points identified could be assigned to one of five categories: Ebola virus can rarely be detected in the faeces or rectal swabs from persons with Ebola virus disease, even during periods of acute illness, 12,37—39 and little is known about the persistence of the virus within faeces.

Marburg virus

All the practices that we categorized as high-risk involved potential contamination with blood: Much of this transmission was attributed to the social, environmental and cultural characteristics of the worst-affected countries,10 including inadequate health-care infrastructures that, even before the outbreak, were under great stress as the result of high population densities in urban areas.

The progress made in these meetings was then shared with a wider group of team members — for comment and feedback — before a two-day face-to-face meeting in Nairobi, Kenya, that was attended by all of the team members from Africa and several of those from Europe.

The framework allows for a rapid identification of the risks associated with a known hazard. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear, watery liquid that flows around the brain and spinal cord, surrounding and protecting them.

A CSF analysis is a group of tests that evaluate substances in CSF in order to diagnose conditions affecting the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system).CSF is formed and secreted by the choroid plexus, a special tissue that has many blood vessels and that.

Ebola virus disease (EVD), also known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) or simply Ebola, is a viral hemorrhagic fever of humans and other primates caused by ebolaviruses. Signs and symptoms typically start between two days and three weeks after contracting the virus with a fever, sore throat, muscular pain, and headaches.

Vomiting, diarrhea and rash usually follow, along with decreased function. The Ebola virus (EBOV) - CME also is a minor pathway for EBOV. 18, 20 As GP is the only surface protein of it mediates the attachment and fussion of the viron to the host cell.

Ebola virus disease

Synovial fluid (joint fluid) is a liquid that acts as a lubricant for the major joints, such as the knees, shoulders, hips, hands, and feet. Laboratory tests on synovial fluid help diagnose the cause of joint inflammation, pain, swelling, and fluid build-up.

Human resources for health (HRH) tools and guidelines HRH situation analysis. Data mapping template on human resources for health xls, kb This tool is to be used as a starting point for the collation, analysis and synthesis of data and evidence on human resources for health (HRH), as well as for monitoring the strengths and limitations of the underlying information systems.

Human resources for health (HRH) tools and guidelines HRH situation analysis. Data mapping template on human resources for health xls, kb This tool is to be used as a starting point for the collation, analysis and synthesis of data and evidence on human resources for health (HRH), as well as for monitoring the strengths and limitations of the underlying information systems.

An analysis of the characteristics of ebola virus
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Ebola virus disease - Wikipedia